niedziela, 12 lipca 2015

Rare Aircraft-Yak-28

A Tushino Appearance and it's Design


Photo from Flickr.com by Tom Wigley.
Details about the development of this aircraft aren't known. The prototype was called the Yak-129.  The Yak-28 was first flown on March 5th 1958 and first shown in puclic in 1961 on the Tushino Air Show. It had plenty of roles, used as a bomber, interceptor, reconnaissance and electronic warfare aircraft, somewhat also as an attack and fighter airplane.
The Yak-28 had swept wings and two Tumanskiy R-11 turbojet engine with afterburner. There were two types of radar available. The autopilot used on the YAk-28 was rather basic. For navigating, RSBN navigation was used. RSBN was a popular system used in Soviet military aircraft, but later on also in civilian airplanes. The navigator sat in front of the pilot in the glass nose. The Yak-28 also used terrain maps. The aircraft had ejection seats. All versions except the interceptor had cannons and four missiles, two short range and two long range. The plane could carry two rockets and more than 2000kg of bombs

Source:Tom Wigley from Flickr.com
Performance
Aerplain.jpg
Yak-28 interceptor.
Yak-28





  • Maximum speed: 1840 km/h (1142 mph)
  • Range: 2,500 km (1,550 mi)
  • Service ceiling: 16,750 m (54,954 ft)
  • B-66 Destroyer





  • Maximum speed: 631 mph (548 kn, 1,020 km/h)
  • Ferry range: 2,470 mi (2,150 nmi, 3,970 km)
  • Service ceiling: 39,400 ft (12,000 m)
  • F-101 Voodoo





  • Maximum speed: Mach 1.72 (1,134 mph, 1,825 km/h) at 35,000 ft (10,500 m)
  • Range: 1,520 mi (1,320 nm, 2,450 km)
  • Service ceiling: 58,400 ft (17,800 m)
  • For it's size, the Yak-28 was a decent performer. Compared to other reconnaissance-light bomber aircraft from these times, there's much less data, even on Russian sites. The rate of climb is unknown, as well as combat radius.
    Versions
    Yak-28

    This was the bomber version. Produced in small numbers, it had no radar.
    Yak-28B Brewer A
    Version with weapon aiming radar system and JATO bottles fiited.
    Yak-28L Brewer-B
    This variant has a ground controlled targeting system
    Yak-28I Brewer-C

    A version with new radar and terrain map.
    Yak-28U Maestro
    The Yak-28U was a trainer aircraft, a two seater with a different nose (and probably simpler instruments).
    Yak-28R Brewer-D

    The reconnaissance variant, with a new radar, modified nose and pallets with mission equipment. Rather a short range reconnaissance aircraft, ideal for wartime reconnaissance.
    Yak-28PP Brewer E

    This airplane is the first Soviet electric countermeasures aircraft (aircraft, that deceive detection systems, such as sonar or radar), the two other (only) being a version of the Su-24 and Mi-8 helicopter. The electronic warfare equipment was placed in the bomb bay
    Yak-28P Firebar
    Yakolev Yak-28L Brewer-B 09 red (7903015146).jpg
    With additional fuel tanks and a new radar, this version was a long range interceptor. It used R-98 missiles installed on other Soviet interceptor.
    Operational History
    صورة معبرة عن ياكوفليف ياك-28
    A total of 1 180 Yak-28s were produced between 1963 and 1971. The Aircraft was spread out in the Warsaw Pact countries and many air bases in the USSR,as an interceptor airplane. In 1966, April 6th A Yak-28 crashed after a failure of all of it's engines in West Berlin. After the failure,the aircraft diverted from a rural area in West Berlin,and tried to land on a lake, but crashed. Both pilots died, but saved lives of many people.After the crash, the crew was posthumously awarded the Order of the red Banner (a Soviet award for bravery and courage etc.). Meanwhile, the British recovered the remains of the Yak-28 and brought to the United Kingdom for examination. The Yak-28 partcipated in many operations and training exercises. It was widely used in the Afghan War (1979-1989).
    Despite poor automation (very basic autopilot), the Yak-28 was sometimes difficult in operation, due to engine problems related with the afterburner. Later on, they were reduced.The fuselage was quite weak and vulnerable. The plane was advised not to make acrobatic manouveres.
    The Yak-28 was retired in 1994.As a bomber and attack airplane it could be changed for fighter aircraft with better manouverability or weapon loading. As a reconnaisance, the Yak-28 wasn't sophisticated enough (radar).
    Operators
    Soviet Air Force

    By Alex Polezhaev from Flickr
    Operated by the Air Force and Anti-Air Defense (interceptor) until the country collapsed.
    Russia
    Operated for one year, afterwards retired.
    Turkmenistan
    I haven't found anything about what Turkmenistan's Yak-28s. They were retired in 1992.
    Ukrainian Air Force
    Yak-28PP 2007 G1.jpg
    35 Yak-28s were operated until 1994.
    Why "Rare"?
    Yakovlev Yak-28P three-view silhouette.png
    Why? The Brewer (or Firebar, or Maestro) was very popular. However, it isn't well known, despite more than a thousand have been build.The issue here, is that the Yak-28 isn't popular today and therefore well-known (or as known as other soviet bombers-for example Il-28).There's one book about the airplane (in actual fact the Yak-25/26/27 and 28).The Yak-28 doesn't stand out, doesn't have anything special. However, I consider thios plane to be interesting due to it's multirole capabilities and unusual design. However, most people will probably disagree with that.
    Nonetheless, the Yak-28 is a noteworthy plane.